Anatomy & Physiology at University of Alaska Anchorage

Text: Human Anatomy & Physiology 6th edition by Elaine Marieb

Required for Lecture and Lab class

Lab Packet

Office: BMH 208 & 210

Review for Midterm in A&P Lab 111

Microscope Know how to use it and all its parts, Histology (5 tissue categories) Muscle, Nervous, Connective, Bone, Integumentary system ( 5 layers, finger nail, Mammary Glands etc), Physical Transport across the membrane, Skeletal System - Bones and bone development, Axial Skeletan, Skull bones and Foreamens, Fetal Skull, Orientation of Bones, Joints, Appendicular system, Physiology of Muscle Contraction, Muscle Structure and Function, and Biomechanics of Muscles. Midterm covers labs 1-5 and is 35% of your grade. Photo ID required to take exam.

Review For Final Exam in A&P Lab 111

Know cat muscles, Human Muscles Orgin and Insertion, Nervous System - Flat Man, Concave Man, Peripheral System and Reflexs, Nerves, Eye, wireman, Histology - Nervous, Eye, Retina, Ear (what is listed in your lab packet), Special Senses, Endorcrine System. Don't Forget ID for exam.


This link was done by a student at UAA and is very helpful! Enjoy! Thanks Jeff Reid!


In Memory of Ken Voght!


Human Anatomy and Physiology I (BIOL 111; 4 CR) - Look on Weblinks for cool pictures for this class!

An introduction to human structure and function. The integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous and endocrine systems are considered. 

Concepts to study:
Histology is very important in this class, don't procrastinate! Use alternative aids such as web sites to help clarify & review histology.
Study partners or groups are great when quizzing each other on bones and concepts.
Get into the Lab and study!!!

This is a huge part of A&P I and is a big part of heartache for students who have never experienced this class before (and even for those who have). Learning histology is all about the time and organization you put into the class.
Remember, there are only FOUR categories of tissue Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, & Nervous. Each Category is further broken down to specific cell types.
Epithelial tissue is mainly named by its shape. It is either squamous (flat), Cuboidal (Cube), Columnar (Columns), or transitional (transitioning from one type to the other). These shapes can either be in a single row (simple) or layered (stratified).  
Epithelial (the ones you need to know:
Simple squamous ( a single row of flat cells)
Stratified squamous (layered rows with flat cells near the top)
Simple cuboidal ( a single row of cube shaped cells)
Pseudo stratified columnar (pseudo = false / fake. Looks like it's layered, but it's not. The cells start at the bottom, but not all reach the top, making it look like it's layered.
Transitional (going from cuboidal like to more squamous when it is stretched - Like in the bladder when it is stretched)


Nervous System Models Eye Dissections Spinal Cord Labeled Models for A&P I

Muscles: Know where they are located on Torso Model, Arm & Leg models. Know all muscles listed in lab packet! Origin & Insertions, and action.

Nervous Tissue: Histology - Know the three different types of neurons: Unipolar, bipolar, multipolar. Dendrite, Cell body, axon, synaptic terminal, synapse,and neurotransmitter. Know there locations. Function of neurons: conduct nervous impulses.

Know that axons can be either myelinated or un myelinated. Schwann cells are wrapped around the axon. Neurilemma is the outer layer of the Schwann cell. Nodes of Ranvier are the segments between the schwann cells. Know that the multipolar neuron is the most common neuron found in the body.

Know the Central Nervous System: Gray Matter, White Matter, Central Canal, Dorsal root, Dorsal Root Ganglion, Dorsal Ramus, Spinal nerves, Rami communicates, Ventral root. Know the THREE Meanings - Pia Mater, Arachnoids, Dura Mater. Know cross section of spinal cord. Brain - Lateral Sulculs, Surface features: Gurus and Sulcus, Major brain regions: Cerebrum, Brain stem, Cerebellum, Lobes of Cerebrum - Frontal Lobes, Parietal Lobes, Temporal Lobes, Occipital Lobes, Hemispheres and longitudinal fissure. Know parts of brain stem: Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Midbrain and functions and descriptions. Know the Diencephalons Regions: Epithalamus, Thalamus, Hypothalamus know functions and descriptions (Expect Total Harmony = Mnemonic). Know all twelve cranial nerves and what the innervate, Know all ventricles.

Endocrine System:

Know what organs are part of the endocrine system:

Pituitary Gland - histology of Anterior and posterior - Anterior Lobe: TSH, ACTH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH. Posterior Lobe: OT, ADH

Thyroid: T3, T4, calcitonin

Adrenal Gland: Cortex: Cortisol, Corticosterone, Adlosterone, androgens

Medulla: epinephrine, nor epinephrine

Placenta: estrogens, progesterones, HCG

Ovary: Estrogens, progesterone

Testis: Androgens such as testosterone

Pancreas: Insulin, glycogen

Parathyroid: Parathyroid hormone

Pineal Gland: Melatonin

Endocrine system is one of the great regulators of the human body's activities. Major purpose is to maintain homeostasis and to regulate many process such as human development. It consist of different organs that are listed above and hormones that go with the organs. Once the hormone binds to the receptor, it induces a response in that cell.

Eye : Know models and what nerves innervate the eye. Lacrimal gland, Retina - cones and rods. Know the three layers of the internal portion of the eye - Sclera, Choroids - nutrients to eye, Retina - Rods and cones.

Ear - Know all parts to the eye and how sound waves work. Organ of corti. Cross section of cochlea. Remember that the stapes are the smallest bone of the body.

Nose: Olfaction - the sense of smell. Know histology of supporting cells, dendrites, glands, mucous layer and cilia.



Human Anatomy and Physiology II (BIOL 112; 4 CR)

A continuation of BIOL 111. The circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, reproductive and immune systems are considered. 

Concepts to study:

Blood is very important for the first part of A&P II. Know components, and Why it is important.You need to take time and study the concepts in the lab. Know the Microscope for first quiz in A&P 112

Blood: Formed Elements:

Erythrocytes ( red blood cells) Comprise of 99.9% of all blood cells; Biconcave discs; no nucleus in mature cell; filled with the protein hemoglobin. Hemo - means blood, and Globin- means protein. Function of Blood: Transports O2 from lungs to body cells.

Leukocytes (white blood cells) Less than 0.1% of all blood cells; 5 different types (Monocyte, Lymphocyte, Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil), Platelets are known as Thrombocytes. Some have granules in cytoplasm and some don't, look under the microscope to tell the difference for your histology. Nucleus present in all types of Leukocytes. Function: Fight against pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. Mnemonic: Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

Thrombocytes (Platelets) Less than 0.1 % of formed elements; cell fragments, no nucleus; contain enzymes. Function: involved in blood clotting.

Cardiovascular System: Heart

Coronary circulation - which means blood supply to the heart

Coronary arteries: supply oxygenated blood to the heart

Cardiac Veins: carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart

Look at flow chart in text book.

Know Heart Model and Sheep Heart - Know vessels, structures, chambers, wall layers, pulmonary circuit, Capillaries, Layers of Arteries and Veins which have three major layers in their walls. Know flat man with arteries, Head Model with arteries, Arm arteries, Leg Arteries, Veins know all listed in lab packet and Same models as arteries.

Respiratory System

Is divided into two major divisions: Upper and lower divisions.

Upper consists of: Nose, Nasal cavity, para nasal sinuses, and the pharynx.

Lower: larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

Know: pathway of molecule O2 through the respiratory system to its final destination. How O2 enters ( which is the nasal cavity), and how it gets to its final destination (body cell).

Lobes: The left lung has 2 lobes, The right has 3 lobes

Know flow chart that gives the pathway of oxygen through the respiratory system and into the body cell.

Digestive System:

Know anatomy of digestive system Models in lab.

Know pathway of ingestion from mouth to anus.

Enzymes are released from glands, which aid in breaking down macromolecules into smaller products able to be used by cells.

Final products are absorbed in the blood stream and how this is done where they can be used as nutrients.

Waste products are eliminated where from the body.

Know major parts of:

Liver: Know liver lobes, ligaments, gallbladder, blood vessels, lobule structures. Function: Synthesis: plasma proteins, clotting factors, bile, cholesterol, storage of iron glycogen, blood, etc, metabolic functions - covert glucose to glycogen and glycogen to glucose ex: convert carbs to lipids. Know Hepatic Lobule structures- Looks like Ferris Wheel. Hepatic cells.

Gallbladder and Bile: Pathway of Hepatic lobule to pancreas to gallbladder. Bile is produced by the hepatic cells, stored in the gallbladder and released in to the duodenum. CCK - known as cholecystikinin - this hormone empties the gallbladder. Know what chyme does, mucosa, lipase and function of bile which is emulsification.

Large Intestine:

Ascending, Transverse, Descending. Know all structures. Large intestine is a hollow muscular tube about 5 feet long. Subdivided into three different part - cecum, rectum, colon. Functions - Reabsoption of water and electrolytes, Absorption, compaction and temporary storage. Know E.Coli is the norma flora bacterium found in the large intestine

Urinary System

Kidneys, Ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Where are the kidneys located? Lumbar region of the vertebral column. Know major organs / structures and blood vessels, Regional areas (cortex, medulla, pelvis), Know pathway urine follows through the kidney and down the ureter.

Nephron Structure: The microscopic structure of the kidney. Know blood vessels, and nephron structures. Loop of Henley I would know!!!! Cross section of renal corpuscle.

Male Reproductive System

Know histology, Parts of sperm cell, Know the pathway of duct system starting with Lumen of seminiferous tubule ending with external urethral orifice. Know all parts of male penis and cross section of penis. The penis is composed of three tubes of spongy connective tissue two corpora cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum.

Female Reproductive System

The Uterus, fundus, endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium, vagina, ovaries, ovarian ligament, suspensory ligament, broad ligament, uterine tubes, isthmus, ampulla, infundibulum, and fimbriae. Know the pathway for oocyte to the the time of ovulation.

Ovary: Know the maturation process for a follicle. Remember its like a water balloon filling up with water and then bursting. Function: Know the two: Produce gametes (sex cells), and Manufacture and release hormones-estrogen etc.

Good Luck on Your Finals and Hope this info Helped you!

pancreas - function endocrine system - produces hormones insulin, glycogen, somatostatatin and pancreatic polypeptide - For digestive system - Cells produce a wide variety of enzymes in the following: Carbs, lipase's, nucleases, protease's enzymes.

Know Teeth types and Tooth Anatomy. Upper Jaw and Lower Jaw and total of both.

Stomach: Mucous Cells, Mucous cells - Secrete an alkaline mucous to protect the stomach lining from acidic gastric juice, Chief cells- Secrete the inactive enzyme - PEPSINOGEN, Parietal cells- Secrete hydrochloric acid; this helps convert pepsinogen into the active enzyme PEPSIN, G cells - Produce and secrete the hormone GASTRIN, which increases secretion from parietal and chief cells. It also induces smooth muscle contraction in the stomach wall.

Small Intestine: Know the wall of small intestine - Serosa, Muscularis externa longitudinal layer, Muscularis externa circular layer, Submucosa, Mucosa. Function: Absorption of nutrients; water, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids etc. Know histology of Simple columnar epithelium - microvilli.

Villus Structures: Arteriole, Blood capillary, Lacteal, Simple columnar epithelial cell, Goblet cell, venule, Plasma cell membrane, Nucleus of one cell.


Kidney Nephron Male Reproductive l Female Histology Male Histology Digestive Histology Torso Model Digestive Model Ovary Model Cross Section of Ovary

Helpful web links: 

A & P Animations

Animation Activities

External Right Eye

Cat Muscles

Digestive Cat

Cat Circulatory System

Ear Model

Pituitary Gland /Endocrine

Heart Animation

Heart Animation II

PQRST Electrocardiogram animation

Text book Link


A&P 1 & 2

Inner Body

Digestive System


Instructors Information:

Dr. Pfeiffer - Assistant Professor - Bio 112 & Gross Anatomy
EBL Rm. 122

Dr. Robert Furilla - Assistant Professor - Bio 111

Dr. Paul Cotter - Instructor - Bio 111 & 112

Allison Butler - Instructor / Lab coordinator- -

Judy Staveley - Adjunct Faculty, RRANN Tutor - - 111 & 112 Labs

Sarah Walton - Adjunct Faculty -

Cody Augdahl - Adjunct Faculty - - 111 Lab

Yvette Baxley - - 111 Lab

Michelle Drake - Adjunct Faculty - - 111 Lab

Edda Mutter - Term Instructor - - 111 & 112 Lab

Sara Smith - - 111 Lab

Geran Tarr -Adjunct Faculty - - 111 Lab

Kristen Foger - Adjunct Faculty - 112 Lab

Mellisa Miller - Adjunct Faculty - 112 Lab

Svea - Term Instructor - 112 Lab